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Publikācija: National Education Policy in the Western Provinces of the Russian Empire in the 19th and Early 20th Century

Publication Type Publications in RTU scientific journal
Funding for basic activity Unknown
Defending: ,
Publication language Russian (ru)
Title in original language Национально-образовательная политика на западных окраинах Российской империи XIX – начала XX вв
Title in English National Education Policy in the Western Provinces of the Russian Empire in the 19th and Early 20th Century
Field of research 6. Humanities and art
Sub-field of research 6.3 Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Authors Mihails Gončarovs
Keywords народные училища, немецкая школа, политика русификации, национальная политика
Abstract Автор выделяет достоинства и недостатки национально-образовательной политики в западных окраинах Российской империи XIX – начала XX вв., характеризует причины ее реформирования. Определяются основные этапы эволюции государственной политики в области образования в западных окраинах России: 1) первая половина XIX в., 2) вторая треть XIX в., 3) период реформ 1860-х г., 4) конец 1860–1870-х гг. эпоха контрреформ, 5) начало 1880-х гг., вторая волна контрреформ и 6) предреволюционный и революционный периоды 1917 года. Особое внимание уделяется оценке отношения крупных государственных и общественных деятелей, священников, чиновников и представителей земств к вопросам воспитания и образования в данном регионе.
Abstract in English The author analyzes the advantages and drawbacks of the national system of education introduced in the western parts of the Russian Empire during the 19th and beginning of the 20th century and outlines the causes of the reforms. The tsarist system of education in Russia developed stepwise and can be divided into the following phases: 1) first half of the 19th century; 2) second third of the 19th century; 3) 1860 until the end of the 1870s marked by a movement of counterreforms; 4) beginning of the 1880s and the second wave of counter-reforms; 5) pre-revolutionary period and the October Revolution of 1917. The educational policy of tsarist Russia influenced not only the state educational institutions but also private educational institutions in which the national languages (Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, German) prevailed. Special stress was laid on the German schools, which was part of the fight against Germanization, and Russia applied its laws to advance in the Russification of the different nations who inhabited the western provinces of the Russian Empire. At the end of the 19th century, even in private schools, the language of education had to be Russian, and only religion was allowed to be taught in the national languages. The national aspirations were suppressed not only by the laws but also by making Russian the dominant language. This situation changed only after the revolution of 1905. The primary schools and private schools that did not get any funding from the state were allowed to teach in their national languages. The author emphasizes the opinions of state employees, priests, public servants and representatives of local councils involved in educational matters.
Reference Gončarovs, M. National Education Policy in the Western Provinces of the Russian Empire in the 19th and Early 20th Century. The Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.25, 2015, pp.79-89. ISSN 1407-9291. e-ISSN 2255-8543.
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