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Publikācija: Virtual-Real Laboratory of Power Systems Relay Protection and Automation and Examples of its Application

Publikācijas veids Promocijas darbs
Pamatdarbībai piesaistītais finansējums Nav zināms
Defending: 09.11.2017 13:00, Enerģētikas un elektrotehnikas fakultātē, Āzenes ielā 12/1, 306. auditorija
Publication language Latvian (lv)
Title in original language Energosistēmu relejaizsardzības un pretavārijas automātikas virtuāli-reālā laboratorija un tās izmantošanas piemēri
Title in English Virtual-Real Laboratory of Power Systems Relay Protection and Automation and Examples of its Application
Field of research 2. Engineering and technology
Sub-field of research 2.2 Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Information and communication engineering
Authors Edīte Bieļa-Dailidoviča
Keywords power system, relay protection, out-of-step protection, virtual-laboratory
Abstract Mūsdienu energosistēmas satur miljoniem elementu, aptver milzīgas ģeogrāfiskas teritorijas, prasa milzīgus attīstības un uzturēšanas kapitālieguldījumus. Energosistēmas darbību ietekmē daudzi gadījuma rakstura procesi un faktori. Lai nodrošinātu tās efektīvu un drošu darbību, ir nepieciešama funkcionāla vadības sistēma. Vairums gadījumos vadības funkcijas tiek nodotas automātikas iekārtām un ierīcēm. Fiziski cilvēks nespēj pietiekami ātri analizēt un pieņemt apsvērtus lēmumus, kā arī savlaicīgi un ātri reaģēt uz izmaiņām energosistēmas režīmos komplicētu bojājumu gadījumos. Tiek izstrādātas jaunas enerģijas ražošanas iekārtas un vadības sistēmas, kas nepārtraukti attīstās, tomēr to nodrošināšanai nepieciešami: kvalificēts personāls, efektīva un progresīva zinātne. Savukārt personāla sagatavošanai un pētījumu veikšanai ir nepieciešamas zinātniskās pētniecības laboratorijas (ZPL), kuras var iedalīt divos ZPL veidos: reālās laboratorijas – pieļauj veikt eksperimentus, izmantojot reālas iekārtas vai to fiziskus modeļus, virtuālas laboratorijas – nodrošina procesu imitēšanu, izmantojot digitālos iekārtu modeļus. Protams, ka var pastāvēt arī iepriekš minēto laboratoriju kombinācijas. Virtuālas laboratorijas tiek izmantotas daudzās zinātnes nozarēs, un tās strauji attīstās līdzās mūsdienīgām informācijas tehnoloģijām. Enerģētikas zinātnes nozarē virtuālās laboratorijas sāka izmantot krietni agrāk par personālajiem datoriem, to lietošana aizsākās 20. gadsimta vidū ar energosistēmu apvienošanu, kad parādījās pirmās elektromehāniskās skaitļošanas mašīnas. Praktisko ieinteresētību minētajām laboratorijām var skaidrot ar: energosistēmas ietekmi uz ekonomikas rādītājiem, kas veicināja investīcijas dārgās skaitļošanas iekārtās, problēmas būtību, kas ir saistīta ar energosistēmas paplašināšanos un komplicētību, kas gala rezultātā izslēdza iespēju veidot tās fiziskos modeļus. Var apgalvot, ka virtuālā energosistēmu izpētes laboratorija šodien ir neatņemams pārvades un sadales tīklu operatoru darbarīks un jaunu speciālistu apmācības līdzeklis. Protams, virtuālās laboratorijas kalpo operatoru dispečeru apmācībām un kvalifikācijas celšanai. Virtuālo laboratoriju iespējas ir ierobežotas reālo automātikas iekārtu uzvedības izpētes gadījumā, jo eksperimentus var veikt tikai ar modeļiem. Lai izslēgtu minēto trūkumu, 20. gadsimta beigās sākās virtuāli-reālo laboratoriju (VRL) izmantošana. Tāda iespēja parādījās kā mikroprocesoru tehnikas attīstības rezultāts. Par VRL pamatiekārtām var uzskatīt sarežģītos relejaizsardzības pārbaudes kompleksus OMICTRONS, Freja, ISA DRTS. Relejaizsardzības pārbaudes kompleksi ir piemēroti rūpnieciski ražojamo iekārtu pārbaudei un stipri ierobežoti zinātnisko pētījumu veikšanā, kad ir nepieciešams ģenerēt sarežģītus testēšanas signālus. Šis promocijas darbs virzīts tālākai VRL attīstībai, laboratorijas izveidei un iespēju pārbaudei, veicot eksperimentus ar reālām automātiskām iekārtām. Par izpētes priekšmetu izvēlēti energosistēmu elektromehāniskie pārejas procesi un to vadībai piemērota automātika (asinhrona režīma novēršanas un salas režīma atpazīšanas). Tādas laboratorijas pastāvēšana ir svarīga ne tikai zinātniskai pētījumu efektivitātes paaugstināšanai, bet arī universitātes mācību procesa uzlabošanai un pilnveidošanai. Modern power systems contain millions of elements, cover huge territories and require very large capital investments for the development and maintenance. Many random processes and factors influence the operation of power system. A functional control system is required to provide its effective and safe operation. In most of the cases the automatic equipment and devices have a control function. A human being is not able to analyse information and make correspondent decisions quickly enough and is not able to react fast enough to changes in power systems in case of complex damages. New equipment for the generation of energy has been developed and control systems are constantly developing which always requires qualified staff and effective and advanced science. In turn, the staff and science require research laboratories (RL) that can be divided into two RL types: real laboratories – for making experiments using real devices or their physical models, virtual labs – for the imitation of processes using digital models of devices. Certainly, a combination of the above mentioned laboratories can exist. The virtual laboratories are applied in many scientific areas and are quickly developing with the modern information technologies. The application of virtual laboratories in the area of power engineering science is much older than of personal computers as it started in the middle of the 20th century with the unification of power systems, when the very first electro-mechanic calculating machines existed. The practical interest to these laboratories can be explained as follows: the influence of power systems on the economy indicators that contributed to expensive calculating equipment, the essence of the problem regarding the extension and complexity of the power system that finally excludes any opportunity to develop its physical models. A laboratory for investigation of power systems nowadays is an integrated tool for the work of transmission and distribution operators as well as for the training of young specialists. It is doubtless that the virtual laboratories serve for the training of the dispatcher operators. The opportunities of virtual laboratories are limited in the case of investigation of the behaviour of a real automatic device as the experiments can be realised with the models only. To exclude this disadvantage the application of virtual-real laboratories (VRL) started in the 20th century. It was the result of the development of microprocessors. The complex testing relay protection devices OMICTRONS, Freja, ISA DRTS can be considered as the basic equipment of VRL. These relay protection devices are suitable for the testing of manufacturing equipment but are strictly limited in application for research when it is required to generate complex testing signals. The thesis foresees further VRL development and laboratory organisation, and examines the possibilities of making the experiments with real automatic devices. The subject of the thesis is electromechanical transient processes of power systems and the automation suitable for their control (out-of-step protection and recognition of island regime). The existence of such laboratory is important for the improvement of effectiveness of scientific investigations, as well as for the improvement of the education process at the universities.
Abstract in English Modern power systems contain millions of elements, cover huge territories and require very large capital investments for the development and maintenance. Many random processes and factors influence the operation of power system. A functional control system is required to provide its effective and safe operation. In most of the cases the automatic equipment and devices have a control function. A human being is not able to analyse information and make correspondent decisions quickly enough and is not able to react fast enough to changes in power systems in case of complex damages. New equipment for the generation of energy has been developed and control systems are constantly developing which always requires qualified staff and effective and advanced science. In turn, the staff and science require research laboratories (RL) that can be divided into two RL types: real laboratories – for making experiments using real devices or their physical models, virtual labs – for the imitation of processes using digital models of devices. Certainly, a combination of the above mentioned laboratories can exist. The virtual laboratories are applied in many scientific areas and are quickly developing with the modern information technologies. The application of virtual laboratories in the area of power engineering science is much older than of personal computers as it started in the middle of the 20th century with the unification of power systems, when the very first electro-mechanic calculating machines existed. The practical interest to these laboratories can be explained as follows: the influence of power systems on the economy indicators that contributed to expensive calculating equipment, the essence of the problem regarding the extension and complexity of the power system that finally excludes any opportunity to develop its physical models. A laboratory for investigation of power systems nowadays is an integrated tool for the work of transmission and distribution operators as well as for the training of young specialists. It is doubtless that the virtual laboratories serve for the training of the dispatcher operators. The opportunities of virtual laboratories are limited in the case of investigation of the behaviour of a real automatic device as the experiments can be realised with the models only. To exclude this disadvantage the application of virtual-real laboratories (VRL) started in the 20th century. It was the result of the development of microprocessors. The complex testing relay protection devices OMICTRONS, Freja, ISA DRTS can be considered as the basic equipment of VRL. These relay protection devices are suitable for the testing of manufacturing equipment but are strictly limited in application for research when it is required to generate complex testing signals. The thesis foresees further VRL development and laboratory organisation, and examines the possibilities of making the experiments with real automatic devices. The subject of the thesis is electromechanical transient processes of power systems and the automation suitable for their control (out-of-step protection and recognition of island regime). The existence of such laboratory is important for the improvement of effectiveness of scientific investigations, as well as for the improvement of the education process at the universities.
Reference Bieļa-Dailidoviča, Edīte. Virtual-Real Laboratory of Power Systems Relay Protection and Automation and Examples of its Application. PhD Thesis. Rīga: [RTU], 2017. 149 p.
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ID 26116