Biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater becomes more common in EU countries. As a result, the amount of wastewater sludge increases. The political and economic situation in world is requiring new methods for recovery of non-renewable mineral resources. Sludge is great secondary source of many elements. The aim of this research is to summarize available techniques for sustainable utilization of industrial sludge and recovery of critical raw minerals (CRMs). The most common sustainable method is using treated sludge as fertilizer in agriculture due to high content of P, N, C and microelements. However, this method has many restrictions, e.g. it can contain toxic substances or lack of appropriate land. Thermal sludge treatment methods like pyrolysis have developed crucially in last decade and pyrolysis units for sludge treatment are commercially available now. Pyrolysis becomes the most sustainable method due to recovery of CRMs and better energy recovery comparing to incineration.