Influence of Carbonated Bottom Slag Granules in 3D Concrete Printing
Materials 2023
Karolina Butkute, Vitoldas Vaitkevicius, Māris Šinka, Algirdas Augonis, Aleksandrs Korjakins

This study investigates the possibility of utilising bottom slag (BS) waste from landfills, and a carbonation process advantageous for the use of artificial aggregates (AAs) in printed threedimensional (3D) concrete composites. In general, the main idea of granulated aggregates is to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions of printed 3D concrete objects (wall). AAs are made from construction materials, both granulated and carbonated. Granules are made from a combination of binder (ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrated lime, burnt shale ash (BSA)) and waste material (BS). BS is a waste material left over after the municipal waste burning process in cogeneration power plants. Whole printed 3D concrete composite manufacturing consists of: granulating artificial aggregate, aggregate hardening and sieving (adaptive granulometer), carbonation of AA, mixing 3D concrete, and 3D printing. The granulating and printing processes were analysed for hardening processes, strength results, workability parameters, and physical and mechanical properties. Printings with no granules (reference 3D printed concrete) were compared to 3D printed concretes with 25% and 50% of their natural aggregate replaced with carbonated AA. The results showed that, theoretically, the carbonation process could help to react approximately 126 kg/m3 CO2 from 1 m3 of granules.

bottom slag; burnt fly ash; 3D printing; CO2 reduction; artificial aggregate

Butkute, K., Vaitkevicius, V., Šinka, M., Augonis, A., Korjakins, A. Influence of Carbonated Bottom Slag Granules in 3D Concrete Printing. Materials, 2023, Vol. 16, No. 11, Article number 4045. e-ISSN 1996-1944. Pieejams: doi:10.3390/ma16114045

Publication language
English (en)
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