Comparison of In Vitro Antimelanoma and Antimicrobial Activity of 2,3-Indolo-betulinic Acid and Its Glycine Conjugates
Plants 2023
Adelina Lombrea, Alexandra-Denisa Semenescu, Ioana Zinuca Magyari-Pavel, Māris Turks, Jevgeņija Lugiņina, Uldis Peipiņš, Delia Muntean, Cristina Adriana Dehelean, Stefania Dinu, Corina Danciu

Malignant melanoma is one of the most pressing problems in the developing world. New therapeutic agents that might be effective in treating malignancies that have developed resistance to conventional medications are urgently required. Semisynthesis is an essential method for improving the biological activity and the therapeutic efficacy of natural product precursors. Semisynthetic derivatives of natural compounds are valuable sources of new drug candidates with a variety of pharmacological actions, including anticancer ones. Two novel semisynthetic derivatives of betulinic acid—N-(2,3-indolo-betulinoyl)diglycylglycine (BA1) and N-(2,3-indolo-betulinoyl)glycylglycine (BA2)—were designed and their antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and anti-migratory activity against A375 human melanoma cells was determined in comparison with known N-(2,3-indolo-betulinoyl)glycine (BA3), 2,3-indolo-betulinic acid (BA4) and naturally occurring betulinic acid (BI). A dose-dependent antiproliferative effect with IC50 values that ranged from 5.7 to 19.6 µM was observed in the series of all five compounds including betulinic acid. The novel compounds BA1 (IC50 = 5.7 µM) and BA2 (IC50 = 10.0 µM) were three times and two times more active than the parent cyclic structure B4 and natural BI. Additionally, compounds BA2, BA3, and BA4 possess antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC values in the range of 13–16 µg/mL and 26–32 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, antifungal activity toward Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 was found for compound BA3 with MIC 29 µg/mL. This is the first report of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 2,3-indolo-betulinic acid derivatives and also the first extended report on their anti-melanoma activity, which among others includes data on anti-migratory activity and shows the significance of amino acid side chain on the observed activity. The obtained data justify further research on the anti-melanoma and antimicrobial activity of 2,3-indolo-betulinic acid derivatives.

2,3-indolo-betulinic acid | antibacterial | glycine conjugates | melanoma

Lombrea, A., Semenescu, A., Magyari-Pavel, I., Turks, M., Lugiņina, J., Peipiņš, U., Muntean, D., Dehelean, C., Dinu, S., Danciu, C. Comparison of In Vitro Antimelanoma and Antimicrobial Activity of 2,3-Indolo-betulinic Acid and Its Glycine Conjugates. Plants, 2023, Vol. 12, No. 6, Article number 1253. ISSN 2223-7747. Available from: doi:10.3390/plants12061253

Publication language
English (en)
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