Recently, premixed calcium phosphate cement pastes have been proposed as biomaterials for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Use of premixed pastes saves the time and removes an extra step during a medical operation. α-Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based cements set to form calcium deficient hydroxyapatite which has a moderate bioresorbtion speed. α-TCP cements require a setting aid, usually a sodium or potassium phosphate salt, to speed up the setting process. Within the current research we investigated which setting aid has significant advantage, if α-TCP is used in form of non-aqueous premixed paste. This approach offers the application of simple ingredients to produce a premixed calcium phosphate cement. The following properties of cement formulations were evaluated: cohesion, phase composition, microstructure, pH value of the liquid surrounding the cement, and compressive strength. Compositions using mixture of basic and acidic potassium phosphate salts (KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) in sufficient amounts give the best overall results (adequate cohesion and pH of the surrounding liquid, hydrolysis of starting materials within 48 h, and compressive strength of 12 ± 3 MPa). Cement prepared with basic sodium phosphate salt (Na2HPO4) as setting aid had considerably higher compressive strength 22 ± 1 MPa, but the pH of the surrounding liquid was basic (9.0).