Small Organic Molecules Containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: Synthesis, Characterization and Transformation
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 2023
Abhishek Rajesh Indurkar, Pawan Kudale, Vitālijs Rjabovs, Ivo Heinmaa, Oznur Demir, Matvejs Kirejevs, Kristaps Rubenis, Ganesh Chaturbhuj, Māris Turks, Jānis Ločs

As the primary solid phase, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) is a pivotal precursor in cellular biomineralization. The intrinsic interplay between ACP and Howard factor underscores the significance of understanding their association for advancing biomimetic ACP development. While organic compounds play established roles in biomineralization, this study presents the synthesis of ACP with naturally occurring organic compounds (ascorbate, glutamate, and itaconate) ubiquitously found in mitochondria and vital for bone remodeling and healing. The developed ACP with organic compounds was meticulously characterized using XRD, FTIR, and solid-state 13C and 31P NMR. The morphological analysis revealed the characteristic spherical morphology with particle size close to 20 nm of all synthesized ACP variants. Notably, the type of organic compound strongly influences true density, specific surface area, particle size, and transformation. The in vitro analysis was performed with MC3T3-E1 cells, indicating the highest cell viability with ACP_ASC (ascorbate), followed by ACP_ITA (itaconate). The lowest cell viability was observed with 10 %w/v of ACP_GLU (glutamate); however, 1 %w/v of ACP_GLU was cytocompatible. Further, the effect of small organic molecules on the transformation of ACP to low crystalline apatite (Ap) was examined in Milli-Q® water, PBS, and α-MEM.

amorphous calcium phosphate | ascorbate | biomaterials | biomimetics | bone tissue engineering | glutamate | itaconate | organic compounds

Indurkar, A., Kudale, P., Rjabovs, V., Heinmaa, I., Demir, O., Kirejevs, M., Rubenis, K., Chaturbhuj, G., Turks, M., Ločs, J. Small Organic Molecules Containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: Synthesis, Characterization and Transformation. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2023, Vol. 11, Article number 1329752. ISSN 2296-4185. Available from: doi:10.3389/fbioe.2023.1329752

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